1:1 The Vision of the Son of Man
SUMMARY OF REVELATION 1:
Preface. John to the Seven Churches. In the Spirit on the Lord's Day. The Revelation of the Son of Man. The Seven Stars and Seven Candlesticks.
The Revelation. Apocalypse, or uncovering, so the Greek word means. The curtain of the future is lifted.
Of Jesus Christ. The revelation is made by Jesus Christ. See Re 6:1.
Which God gave to him, to shew. See Re 5:1,2,7,9. He who sits on the throne gave to the Son the sealed book of the future to open it.
Things which must shortly come to pass. The series of events began to unfold in a few years after John wrote, and has rolled on through all the centuries. Lange renders the Greek translated shortly by the phrase in quick succession, which is nearly its meaning. It implies successive order.
And he sent and signified [it]. The things which must shortly come to pass.
By his angel. Here, and throughout the Apocalypse the office of unveiling the different scenes appears to be assigned to a particular angel. See for example Re 4:1 21:09 22:01 22:8.
Unto his servant John. A usual designation of the prophets. See Isa 49:5 Am 3:7 Re 19:10
1:2 Who bare record. John is meant, who made the record of all he saw and heard.
1:3 Blessed [is] he that readeth. There is a reference to the custom that had already grown up, at the close of the first century, of reading the apostolic writings publicly in the churches. The benediction is pronounced on the public reader; on those that hear, and lastly upon those that keep the words contained in this prophecy.
The time [is] at hand. The period to which the prophecy relates is near.
1:4 John to the seven churches which are in Asia. The churches are named in Re 1:11. The term Asia did not mean in the first century what it does now, but only the Roman province called Asia, of which Ephesus was the capital. All the seven churches are in that province. It is supposed that SEVEN, the perfect and sacred number, were chosen, because the seven were to symbolize the whole Church of Christ. There were in the province of Asia more than seven churches at this time, as we know, Colosse, Miletus (Ac 20:17) and Hierapolis (Col 4:13) being named in the New Testament.
Grace [be] to you. The benediction, like that in the apostolic epistles, shows that Revelation is an epistle also, addressed directly to seven churches and through them to all the church.
From him which is. The I AM. See Ex 3:14.
From the seven Spirits. The Holy Spirit. The numeral seven indicates fulness, perfection. It is the sacred number. The sevens are constantly repeated through Revelation. There are seven churches, seven spirits, seven trumpets, seven thunders, seven vials, etc.
1:5 And from Jesus Christ. Some of the glories of Christ, the third whose grace is invoked, are named.
The faithful witness. Because all that he ways is faithful and true.
The first begotten of the dead. See PNT Col 1:18. Through Christ's resurrection from the dead life and immortality were brought to light for us all. Hence he is called the first born.
The prince of the kings of the earth. The rightful ruler of all the rulers of the earth.
Unto him that loved us. The tense is present, as in the Revised Version: Unto him that loveth us. His love never ceases.
And washed us from our sins in his own blood. Rather, as in the Revised Version, loosed us. This was done by the shedding of his blood.
1:6 And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father. Here the Revised Version must be followed: And he made us [to be] a kingdom, [to be] priests unto his God. His disciples are constituted a kingdom; a kingdom in which each one is a priest. No disciple needeth a priest to offer incense or sacrifice for him, for he can go directly to the Father through Jesus Christ. See PNT 1Pe 2:9. Christians are called priests, but are never called kings in a correct translation of the New Testament.
1:7 He cometh. Christ.
With clouds. See Mt 24:30 26:64 Ac 1:9,11. The clouds denote the glory and terrors of his coming.
Every eye shall see him. He will then come to meet all mortals.
They [also] which pierced him. Israel, the nation which rejected and crucified him is meant. See Zec 12:10, which is here quoted.
All kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. All the tribes of earth shall mourn over him (Revised Version). In consternation because he is coming to judge the world.
1:8 I am the Alpha and Omega. The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet; hence the beginning and the end. All begins with God and he closes the drama of earthly history.
1:9 I John. He here names himself for the third time. The fourth and fifth times are in Re 21:2 22:8.
Companion in tribulation. A partaker of the sufferings of the church like you.
Kingdom and patience. In the kingdom they were called to patient endurance.
Was in the isle that is called Patmos. For description of this island, see Topic 9307. Bible Commentary (Speaker's) on Revelation states:
It appears to be the certain result of historical evidence that the Apostle John was banished to the island of Patmos during the reign of Domitian (A.D. 81-96) and in the fourteenth year of that reign, and was recalled from Patmos to Ephesus by the Emperor Nerva in A.D. 96.''
For the word of God. Banished on account of preaching the word of God.
1:10 I was in the Spirit. Was lifted to that spiritual exaltation in which revelations are given.
On the Lord's day. The day of the Lord's Resurrection, the first day of the week. In the earlier apostolic writings the day was called the first day of the week (Ac 20:7 1Co 16:2), but by the close of the century it began to be called the Lord's day, as here. Epistles of Barnabas, Ignatius and Dionysius, written near this time, so style it, and the name is of common occurrence from this time onward, and is confined to Sunday. It is not confounded with the Sabbath day of many centuries. See Dr. Wm. Smith's Unabridged Dictionary of the Bible, article Lord's Day.
Heard behind me a great voice. Heard but did not see the speaker.
1:11 I am Alpha and Omega. These words are omitted in the Revised Version, as not found in the best MSS.
What thou seest. In all the visions of the Book of Revelation.
Write in a book. The Greek says in a roll, which was the form of books in the East at that time.
Unto Ephesus. The seven churches are now named. For notes on these churches and the cities where they were located, see chapters 2 and 3. Two of the churches named had received epistles from the Apostle Paul.
1:12 I saw seven golden lampstands. The first things seen when he turned to see whence the voice came were the seven golden lampstands, which symbolized the churches (Re 1:20).
1:13 And in the midst. It is a beautiful thought that he who said I will be with you always is represented as moving in the midst of the church (Mt 28:20).
The Son of man. A term used in Da 7:13 and applied by the Savior to Himself, but never applied to him by the New Testament writers except here, Re 14:14, and Ac 7:56.
A garment down to the foot. The long robe of a high priest girt about with the golden girdle of a king.
1:14 His head and [his] hairs [were] white. White is the color of purity and of triumph. The idea here is not age but heavenly glory.
His eyes [were] as a flame of fire. Bright, piercing, all seeing, flashing light, and also a consuming fire of the wicked.
1:15 Feet like unto fine brass. Shedding forth splendor like burnished brass heated in a furnace.
His voice as the sound of many waters. His voice was mighty like the sound of surging waters.
1:16 In his right hand seven stars. See Re 1:20.
And out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword. This two-edged sword is a symbol of the word by which Christ's conquests are won. See Eph 6:17 Heb 4:12, and compare Re 19:15.
His countenance [was] as the sun shineth in his strength. The glory of his countenance is the same that was manifested at the Transfiguration (Mt 17:2).
1:17 I fell at his feet as dead. Overcome with awe. No sinful man can stand before God and live; hence the impression made by the appearance of the Lord is that of terror.
Fear not. But when the Lord spoke to the disciple it was with the old love. How often before had Jesus said Fear not.
I am the first and the last. See PNT Re 1:8. The attributes claimed for Jehovah are also claimed for Christ.
1:18 He that liveth, and was dead. Put to death but living.
And have the keys of hell and of death. The keys of death and of Hades (Revised Version). Not only a victor over death, but the very gates of death and Hades are under his control. Hence he can deliver from the dead whom he will.
1:19 Write the things which thou hast seen. Not only the vision just seen, but
the things which are, viz. the description of the state of the churches given in chapters 2 and 3; and also
the things which shall be hereafter, viz. the revelation of future history recorded in chaps. 6-20.
1:20 The mystery of the seven stars. The Lord himself at once explains what the seven stars and seven candlesticks symbolize. The seven candlesticks represent the churches, or organizations appointed to let their light shine (Mt 5:16) and become the light of the world (Re 5:14).
And the seven stars are the angels of the churches. These were, I think, the evangelists of the churches.